JUDE: WISDOM FROM JESUS’ OTHER BROTHER
The Holy Family in Nazareth, litho. 1930, unknown artist (Wikipedia public domain).
All Scripture quotations in this publication are from the holy Bible, New International Version, except where noted (published by Zondervan Corporation, copyright, 1985)
Copyright © Jim Gerrish 2014
Although Jude is a tiny book with only 25 verses, it is a very important book. Professor Thomas R. Schreiner says of it, “Some of the most beautiful statements about God’s sustaining grace are found in Jude.” 1 Fred Craddock comments, “Jude has literary grace. It is written in a style dignified and at times poetic.” 2
We might wonder just who the “Jude” is (Gk. Judah), the one named as the writer of this very short letter. He identifies himself in the first verse as the brother of James. Many commentators are quite certain that this could only be a reference to James, the brother of Jesus and the leader of the Jerusalem church. That would make Jude one of the four brothers (half-brothers) of Jesus (Matt. 13:55; Mk. 6:3). Over the centuries there seems to have been a great deal of confusion as writers traditionally have identified this Jude as one of the original disciples of Jesus. This disciple is sometimes called “Judas of James” (Lk. 6:16), “Judas son of James” (Acts 1:13), or he was possibly even nicknamed “Lebbaeus, (NKJ)” or “Thaddeus” (Matt. 10:3).
Such a connection seems most unlikely. We know from Scripture that during the time of Jesus and his disciples, the brothers of Jesus did not believe in him (Mk. 3:21; Jn. 7:5). After the resurrection, Jesus appeared to James, and we see possibly all of Jesus’ brothers at the Pentecost prayer meeting (Acts 1:14). Later in 1 Corinthians 9:5, we see them as itinerant missionaries. 3 Jude identifies himself not as a brother of Jesus, but simply as a servant or slave of Jesus. James in his book (Jas. 1:1) identifies himself in exactly the same way. This seems to be a mark of great humility among Jesus’ brethren. Certainly, any false writer would have wasted no time in identifying himself as Jesus’ brother.
Other big questions about this little book cannot be answered. We do not know for sure to whom it was written, or from where it was written. It seems to have been written to a specific church, but at the same time its content was broad enough that the book came to be included in the “catholic” or “general” epistles that went out to all the churches. We cannot be sure about its date. Because much of its material is duplicated in Second Peter it would seem that the little book would have a similar date, of around AD 64-65. It was no doubt written before Peter’s death in AD 65. 4
Unlike Second Peter, Jude had a good deal of acceptance by the early church and was listed as “Scripture” by the ancient Muratorian Canon. It was also accepted by the early church fathers, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria and Origen. 5
The clear purpose of the book was to warn the believers against some itinerant teachers who were spreading a form of early Gnosticism among the churches. Such teachers appear in several New Testament books like those of Timothy, Titus, Colossians and Second Peter.
Jude, a servant of Jesus Christ and a brother of James… Jude 1:1
Jude skips over his special relationship with Jesus and calls himself only a servant or slave (doulos) of the Master. This lowly designation is often used by biblical writers and we Christians today should not hesitate to describe ourselves in just such a way. That alone would eliminate numerous prideful conflicts within the church.
Many scholars are fairly certain that this Jude was in fact the half-brother of Jesus. Obviously, Jesus was conceived of the Holy Spirit and not of his earthly father Joseph. Distinguished Ashland professor David A. Desilva says, “…Nothing therefore, prevents the Epistle of Jude form being authored by a younger half-brother of Jesus….” 1
It appears that the natural relatives of Jesus had a great part in leadership of the Jerusalem church throughout the first century. Eusebius, in his Ecclesiastical History (3.20), refers to the early Christian writer Hegesippus who mentions how some grandsons of Jude were later brought before the Emperor Domitian. The ruler was apparently suspicious of them since they were of the Davidic line. However, they assured him that they were but simple farmers who paid him taxes and lived by the labor of their hands. They apparently convinced the emperor by showing him the hardness of their hands.2
No doubt, Jude, whose name was literally “Judas” was anxious not to be identified with the arch traitor, Judas Iscariot. Jude did not consider himself an apostle (1:17) but it is possible that Paul describes him as such in 1 Corinthians 9:5. We might remember that James did not claim the position of an apostle either, but Paul described him by this title in Galatians 1:19. It is therefore likely that Jude was considered as an apostle by the early church, although he and James, like Paul himself, were certainly not part of the original twelve.
Despite his close family relationship with Jesus, Jude was willing to walk in humility and not claim this great advantage. Perhaps Jude was willing to say with Paul in 2 Corinthians 5:16, “So from now on we regard no one from a worldly point of view. Though we once regarded Christ in this way, we do so no longer.” 3
Jude continues with his introduction saying, “To those who have been called, who are loved by God the Father and kept by Jesus Christ: Mercy, peace and love be yours in abundance” (1:1-2). Commentators have often remarked about Jude’s fondness for triads or triplets. 4 We see this in the words “called, sanctified, preserved” and in “mercy, peace and love.” It is obvious that Jude is dealing with his recipients in a rather general manner. He is writing to the called, loved and kept by Jesus. However, while he is directing his epistle in a rather general way, he is dealing with a specific problem in some specific church or churches. Some commentators feel that he is to a degree addressing Hebrew believers. They feel this is reflected in his many references to ancient Jewish materials. 5
Kenneth Wuest notes that the expression “loved by God” is in the perfect tense, that the saints of God are permanent objects of divine love. He translates this passage, “…to those who by God the Father have been loved and are in a state of being the permanent objects of his love…” 6 The great F.B. Meyer remarks about the expression “kept by Jesus,” saying, “Kept is the keynote of this Epistle. It occurs in Jude 1:1; 1:6; 1:21, and in another form in Jude 1:24.” 7 Indeed, the Lord makes a great promise in this last verse, that he is perfectly able to keep us from falling and preserve us through the end of the age.
DEFENDING OUR SHARED SALVATION FROM THE GODLESS
Dear friends, although I was very eager to write to you about the salvation we share, I felt I had to write and urge you to contend for the faith that was once for all entrusted to the saints. Jude 1:3
In the Greek, Jude speaks not to “dear friends” but to the “beloved” of God (agapetoi). It appears that Jude had planned to write the beloved a treatise on the message of salvation, but that some urgent problem had prompted him to change his plans and deal with the matter at hand. The well-known Scottish commentator, William Barclay says of this turn of events, “… often it is much better to write a tract for the times than a treatise for the future.” 8
Jude here gives us some excellent encouragement for our age. He tells us that we simply must guard the faith that has been entrusted once for all to us. We need to hear this message in our compromising, hypocritical, and lackadaisical age. The Barna Group tells us that since 1990, the unchurched in America has increased from 30 to 43 percent. 9
According to a survey done far back in the 1980s, 70 percent of Americans already felt they could get along quite well without attending church. 10 Even for those who attend church today there are many who do not really understand what Christianity is all about. An earlier Barna report back in 2003 astounded us by noting that only 9 percent of born-again Christians held a biblical worldview. 11 Obviously, if our worldview is faulty, our walk may also become faulty in time.
In this passage we see that our faith; our spiritual heritage; our central beliefs are of critical importance. These are handed down (paradotheise) “once for all” (hapax). 12 This is not something that will be repeated, so if we lose it or allow it to be corrupted, it is gone forever. For this reason we should earnestly vie for our faith and defend it in this present evil age. Jude challenges us to “contend” or “strive” (agonisai) for the faith. This conveys the picture of “agony” or striving even to death. 13
The word for faith here includes the essential gospel truths that are held in common. Delbert Rose says, “It means the sum of that which Christians believe.” 14 The “shared” salvation is the oft-repeated Greek word koinos, which means having things in common or becoming a sharer or partner. 15
“For certain men whose condemnation was written about long ago have secretly slipped in among you. They are godless men, who change the grace of our God into a license for immorality and deny Jesus Christ our only Sovereign and Lord” (1:4). Perhaps Jude is here referring to very words of Jesus as we see in Mark 13:6, “Many will come in my name, claiming, ‘I am he,’ and will deceive many.” Also, the Apostle Paul had sensed that many savage wolves would come into the flock of God (Acts 20:29; cf. Matt. 7:15).
We have seen in other instances how a proto-Gnosticism had threatened those of the early churches. Apparently this is what we have here. This doctrine was based upon Greek ideas that demeaned the natural and exalted the spiritual. Scholars Kenneth Barker & John Kohlenberger describe this heresy saying: “Gnosticism…branched into ascetic and libertine divisions…Only the spirit would transcend this universe to reach the unknown God…The heretics were antinomian…Their rejection of Jesus (v. 4), their blaspheming of angels (vs. 8, 10), and their complaining and cynicism (v. 16) all fit libertine Gnosticism.” 16
These heretics had secretly slipped into the congregations (cf. Gal. 2:4). They had literally snuck in by the back door. No doubt there were many itinerant teachers and preachers who were attempting to get some gain from the new gospel message. Schreiner sees them as outsiders, wandering prophets and teachers. 17 We should note however that it was perfectly possible for some to rise up within the church as wolves in sheep’s clothing and pervert the gospel as Paul mentioned in Acts 20:29.
These teachers were godless (asebes). Twentieth century Greek scholar, Kenneth Wuest, describes this word as being destitute of any reverential awe toward God, or being impious…they were also wanton or lascivious (aselgeia). 18 Sexual debauchery was a mainstay of most pagan religions. We can understand how new converts from paganism could easily be drawn back into this lifestyle by these false teachers.
It should be noted here that Jesus is mentioned as “our only Sovereign and Lord.” The word for “Sovereign” is despotēs. The early nineteenth century British Methodist, Adam Clarke, sees it as here being applied to the Lord Jesus Christ.19
LESSONS FROM THE EXODUS
Though you already know all this, I want to remind you that the Lord delivered his people out of Egypt, but later destroyed those who did not believe. Jude 1:5
Here Jude brings up three examples of God’s judgment from ancient times. He first mentions the Exodus from Egypt and how the Lord delivered his people, only to later destroy those who did not believe. For centuries scholars have noted how closely this section of Jude parallels 2 Peter 2:4-12. While many scholars believe that Peter used Jude as a source, this is not unanimous. Schreiner agrees with the “Peter used Jude” scenario saying, “There does not seem to be enough distinctive material in Jude if he had 2 Peter before him.” 20
Jude is here reminding the Lord’s people just as Peter had done. Barclay remarks here, “In a sense it is true to say that all preaching within the Christian church is not so much bringing to men new truth as confronting them with truth they already know, but have forgotten or are disregarding….” 21
This passage confronts us with the somber question of whether or not a person can lose his or her salvation. This is indeed a sticky question that we see thrashed out in 1 Corinthians 10:1-12 and in Hebrews 3:7— 4:13. Certainly, the coming out of Egypt became a type and pattern of our deliverance from the realm of Satan and of evil. Some of the wilderness rebels are described as “those who did not believe.” 22 The Bible declares over and over that if we believe and endure to the end we will be saved. Jude even says as much in verses 24-25. He makes clear that God keeps the righteous from falling.
LESSONS FROM THE ANGELS
And the angels who did not keep their positions of authority but abandoned their own home— these he has kept in darkness, bound with everlasting chains for judgment on the great Day. Jude 1:6
Here the comparison with Second Peter 2:4 becomes very obvious. As we have said in Second Peter, we can determine from the Bible account that sin did not begin with man in the garden. From other Scriptures we know that sin began with Satan or Lucifer, as he in pride desired to be like God (Isa. 14:12-15; Ezek. 28:11-19). From Revelation 12:4, we know that numerous angels, likely a third of them, followed after Satan. It is no mystery that sin was already represented in the Garden of Eden with the serpent. Also, it was represented there by the tree of the knowledge of good and evil (Gen. 2:9). So, not only was humankind led into sin but even some of the angels of heaven were led into sin. From this account we must assume that the sin of the angels happened after the sin of man.
This account is based on Gen 6:1-4, where the Sons of God (angels) lusted after the daughters of men and had sexual relations with them. The products of this unlawful union were the giants of old. In the period between the testaments there was considerable interest in this story. In the pseudepigraphal books, many written before the coming of Christ, this account is related. The book of 1 Enoch is the basis for much that is told us in Jude and also in Second Peter. We cannot recommend that people study this book but obviously it has some grains of truth in it. We see the Spirit of Truth both here and also in Second Peter pick up on portions of the material that is truthful.
Some may wish to dismiss this account entirely, but we should be reminded that giants were well attested in biblical history and in folklore. From the Bible we see that God destroyed the original race of giants in the flood. However, also from the Bible we must assume that there was at least one more invasion of angels. Popular preacher and writer, Warren Wiersbe, reminds us of Genesis 6:4, “There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that.” He says, “This would mean that a second invasion of fallen angels had to take place! We have no record of this in Scripture.” 23 We might add that while we have no record in Scripture we do have numerous evidences of giants in later biblical history. They were at last eliminated largely by the descendants of Abraham.
Perhaps it would help us with this difficult passage if we stopped to see how some of the early church fathers looked at it. Justyn Martyr (c. AD 160) said: “The angels transgressed this appointment and were captivated by love of women. And they begat children, who are those who are called demons.” Irenaeus (c. 180) adds: “In the days of Noah, He justly brought on the Deluge for the purpose of extinguishing that most infamous race of men then existent, who could not bring forth fruit to God. For the angels who sinned had commingled with them.” Tertullian (c. 200) also comments: “Those angels, the deserters from God, the lovers of women— were likewise the discoverers of this curious art [of astrology]. And on that account, they were also condemned by God….” 24
Jude tells us that these rebellious angels who left their heavenly dwelling were immediately consigned to darkness and everlasting chains as they await the Day of Judgment.
Obviously, numerous questions arise in our minds from this strange account. Some have proposed that angels are asexual and that it would have been impossible for them to have had sex with humans. Schreiner points out that Matthew 22:30 does not say that angels are asexual but that they do not marry nor are they given in marriage. He adds to this, “…The presence of such a story in so many cultures functions as evidence of a historical event that occurred.” 25
Web commentator David Guzik speculates, “The unnatural union corrupted the genetic pool of mankind, so God had to find Noah, a man perfect in his generations (Genesis 6:9) – that is, ‘pure in his genetics.’ …We know that angels have the ability to assume human appearance at least temporarily, but we don’t know more than that…. Apparently some fallen angels are in bondage while others are unbound and active among mankind as demons…Their sinful pursuit of freedom put them in bondage.” 26
This attempt of Satan and his hosts seems to be an attempt to preempt the incarnation. If this satanic invasion had been allowed to continue it probably would have made the redemption of Christ impossible. After all, how could Christ have redeemed humans if they were no longer humans, but some kind of mixture or mongrelization with fallen spiritual beings?
There is certainly a warning for us in this passage. The Englishman, Peter Pett, states this warning well: “It was sin of the deepest kind. Mankind’s current and growing obsession with the occult will no doubt again produce a similar judgment…” 27 The false teachers in Jude’s day seem to have had a fascination with angels. Once again today, there is a rising interest in angels and angelology. Such an interest usually runs counter to a sincere interest in Christ.
We cannot overlook the fact that godly marriage is one of the most precious natural and spiritual gifts that the Lord has given humankind. We observe that from ancient times the devil has worked tirelessly to try and wreck this wonderful heavenly gift. This evil episode of the giants was just one major attack on marriage. Today with homosexual marriages, we see another serious attack on the blessed institution.
“In a similar way, Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding towns gave themselves up to sexual immorality and perversion. They serve as an example of those who suffer the punishment of eternal fire” (1:7). “Sir George Adam Smith in The Historical Geography of the Holy Land points out that no incident in history ever made such an impression on the Jewish people, and that Sodom and Gomorrah are time and time again used in Scripture as the examples par excellence of the sin of man and the judgment of God…” 28
The cities Jude refers to are Sodom and Gomorrah and also two surrounding cities by the names of Adamah and Zeboim (Deut. 29:23; Hos. 11:8). These doomed cities were located at the southern end of what is now the Dead Sea. Even after the thousands of years, this area is one of the most desolate that I have even witnessed. The area marks the lowest habitable elevation on earth and it noted for its heat, dryness and saltiness. It is very sparsely settled with a couple of small Israeli kibbutzim (collective farms), the tiny settlement of Neve Zohar and the En Boqeq resort for those who enjoy swimming in the Dead Sea.
The dreadful sin of Sodom and the surrounding cities was quite simply that of homosexuality. Today this awful sin has been exonerated due to our senseless drive for “political correctness.” We surely realize that this drive to make homosexuality acceptable is not just some move to help an oppressed group of people. It is clearly a militant attack on the institution of marriage and of the whole of Christianity for that matter.
As I write this section a storm is brewing in the large US city of Houston, Texas. The city’s first openly lesbian mayor, Annise Parker, has ordered a group of five Houston pastors to turn over all their sermons and other materials that deal with homosexuality and gender identity issues. The pastors have refused, citing the abuse of their religious liberty, and they now run the risk of being seen in contempt of court. 29 This is probably only the beginning of a gigantic political war between homosexuals and Christianity.
Perhaps we need to look more closely at this Bible story. Lot had entertained a couple of visitors to Sodom. It turned out that they were angels sent to destroy the city. At evening the sodomite men of the city gathered around Lot’s house demanding to “know” the angels, that is to have sexual relations with them. All this was first of all a clear breach of the Middle Eastern laws of hospitality. 30 Pett comments, “Here was an example of lasciviousness and illicit sex, and a further attempt to break down the barrier between the heavenly and the earthly by the rape of angels.” 31 With this we can understand the fearsome wrath of God that was poured out on these cities.
THE FILTHY DREAMERS OF JUDE’S DAY
In the very same way, these dreamers pollute their own bodies, reject authority and slander celestial beings. Jude 1:8
We cannot help but see a great connection between the sins of fallen angels and the sins of Sodom and her sister cities. In both cases awful sin was involved, angels were involved along with a lust for unnatural flesh, for breaking the boundaries established by God.
These false teachers are called “dreamers.” Craddock says, “Even though dreams were respected as avenues of divine revelation (Matt. 1:20-2:20), dreamers were often portrayed in a negative light (Deut. 13:1-5; Jer. 27:9), as persons who led people astray…” 32 Even today we must always be careful to check our dreams by the word of God. It is possible, like these teachers, for us to end up in a “dream world” so far as our religion is concerned.
The dreamers of Jude’s day polluted their bodies. When we turn from the holy law of God to our own depraved ideas, God will likely “give us over to shameful lusts.” (Rom. 1:26). Certainly sexual depravity is involved here, but because of the direct connection with the above story, it seems we cannot entirely rule out some sort of homosexuality or other crude and unnatural practices.
Also, we see them rejecting authority and slandering celestial beings. Certainly these fallen souls would reject the authority of Moses and the Law. They would also likely reject the good and sensible gospel teaching of Jude. However, by the use of the Greek singular kyriotes (authority), Schreiner feels he is probably speaking of the Lordship of Christ or of God. 33 Guzik says: “Today, our culture encourages us to reject authority and to recognize self as the only real authority in our lives…In the darkest days of Israel, society was characterized by a term: ‘every man did what was right in his own eyes.’ (Judg. 21:25) Today, this is the pattern of all the world and especially Western civilization.” 34
The slander of celestial beings in the Greek comes out as blasphemy of the glories (doxas). By the use of this term, Pett feels that Jude is speaking of the good angels who did not rebel. 35
“But even the archangel Michael, when he was disputing with the devil about the body of Moses, did not dare to bring a slanderous accusation against him, but said, ‘The Lord rebuke you!’” (1:9). Here we get some more information not found in the pages of holy writ. We do know that Moses died and strangely was buried by God (Deut. 34:1-6), but we do not know that there was a struggle over his body. This information once more is taken from another apocryphal book, The Assumption of Moses. Some may object to this but we must remember that many of these books were widely used in the first century. Craddock adds: “It is important to recall that the Jewish community did not publicly announce what constituted Scripture for them until well into the Christian era, and the Christian community discussed what should be the contents of its Bible for at least two centuries beyond the date of Jude.” 36
Also, are we to believe that there was not a shred of written revelation in the some four hundred years between Malachi and Matthew? There were apparently a lot of inspired folks around and they left us with a large collection of works. When we look at these works it is immediately apparent that they are not in the class with Scripture. However, it does not mean that everything in these works is in error. We are not wise enough to determine this but the Holy Spirit is.
We must understand that the Scripture was “God breathed” by the Holy Spirit (2 Tim. 3:16). The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of Truth (Jn. 14:17). If the Holy Spirit determines that there is a grain of truth in an apocryphal book we must acknowledge his right to use it in Scripture. This does not mean that the whole work is true and it does not mean that we should accept other parts of the work as true, although it might be interesting reading. We should note that The Assumption of Moses is missing some parts today. It is particularly missing the account of Michael and the body of Moses, although that portion is reflected in some ancient commentaries. 37
In the account, the devil disputed the right of Moses to have a decent burial since he had once murdered an Egyptian. In the dispute, Michael the Archangel would not utter a word of rebuke against the devil but rather said, “The Lord rebuke you!” (cf. Zech. 3:1-5).
While this passage was a sure rebuke to the false teachers who were blaspheming authorities it is certainly a rebuke to many today in the Charismatic world who are intent on rebuking the devil. We see from this Scripture that this is an extremely dangerous practice. We need to let the Lord do the rebuking if it is to be done. Barclay says, “…If the greatest of the good angels refused to speak evil of the greatest of the evil angels, even in circumstances like that, surely no human being may speak evil of any angel.” 38
“Yet these men speak abusively against whatever they do not understand; and what things they do understand by instinct, like unreasoning animals— these are the very things that destroy them” (1:10). We see in the word of God that spiritual things “…are spiritually discerned” (1 Cor. 2:14). These false teachers had no spiritual discernment so they were speaking things they did not understand.39 They were behaving like animals and they were on a sure path to destruction.
“Woe to them! They have taken the way of Cain; they have rushed for profit into Balaam’s error; they have been destroyed in Korah’s rebellion” (1:11). We note that Jude continues to use threes. It seems that logically and spiritually, three points seem to clinch a presentation. Perhaps this is why there are so many three-point sermons around. Here Jude gives us a veritable rogue’s list of biblical history, with Cain, Balaam and Korah.
Let us look first at the way of Cain. His story is found in Genesis 4:1-16. We see that out of pure envy and unbelief Cain murdered his brother Abel. Barclay says of Cain: “To the Hebrew thinkers Cain was the cynical, materialistic unbeliever who believed neither in God nor in the moral order of the world and who, therefore, did exactly as he liked.” 40 It is popular in our preaching and teaching to say that the difference was that Cain’s sacrifice was not a blood sacrifice while Abel’s was. The Scripture does not bear this out and paints Cain’s problem simply as one of unbelief (Heb. 11:4). Jude is applying the same problem of unbelief to the false teachers. F.F. Bruce citing Epiphanius relates this sad story: “In the early days of Christianity there was one heretical (Gnostic) group which actually venerated Cain and his successors as champions of right, and claimed to be akin to him.” 41 We know from the biblical account that God cursed Cain and put a mark upon him (Gen.
There is much more to the story of Cain than meets the eye. Cain is a perfect example of the secular man of our postmodern world, while Abel is a perfect picture of the spiritual man. Although Cain made a pretense of sacrifice, there was hardly a spiritual bone in his body. He cared nothing for God and his way and neither did he regard humankind. Out of pure selfishness and wounded pride he could slay his only brother. We remember that Cain had a direct conversation with God and the Lord patiently instructed him about his errant life. However, Cain would have none of this instruction. He reminds us of many rebels today who have had a background in the Christian faith but who have totally rejected it and gone their own way. They have suppressed the truth with their sin and folly (Rom. 1:18).
The struggle of Cain and Abel has gone on through the centuries. Abel represented the godly life. He represented the word of God and true prophecy. The battle of these sons still raged in the days of Jesus (Matt. 23:35; Lk. 11:51). The same battle rages today.
The next biblical rogue Jude deals with is Balaam. In the Old Testament, the prophet Balaam was an excellent example of one who mixed religion with covetousness. The Scripture hints that he also mixed illicit sex into the toxic brew as well. This man stands as a type of all false prophets. The story of Balaam is told to us in Numbers chapters 22 through 24. In Revelation 2:14, we are told how Balaam helped lure the Israelites into forbidden sexual engagements. All this resulted in the disastrous national sin at Baal Peor. In the end, as they conquered their land, the Israelites slew Balaam with the sword (Num. 31:8; Josh. 13:22).
Balaam certainly gets the credit for his evil advice and actions (Num. 31:16). He had a true prophetic gift and makes some of the clearest messianic prophecies in the Bible, but he was a mixture. He tried his best to get God to give him permission to participate in King Balak’s evil plans of cursing Israel. All this reminds us of Judas who was anxious to receive the reward of iniquity (Acts 1:18). In the end, Balaam was rebuked for his madness by a lowly donkey who spoke with a man’s voice. Ministry and money was a bad mix in Jude’s day and it is still a bad mix today.
Finally, Jude gives the example of Korah, whose story is found in Numbers 16:1-35. Korah held a Levitical position yet he along with Dathan, Abiram and others rebelled against the leadership of Moses. They claimed Moses and Aaron had gone too far (16:3) but it turned out that they themselves had gone too far (16:7). As these rebels stood before God with their censers, the fire of God fell and consumed them. For the whole rebellious group the ground then opened up and swallowed them with their families and belongings. Barclay says: “… Korah stands for the man who refuses to accept authority and reaches out for things which he has no right to have. So Jude is charging his opponents with defying the legitimate authority of the church…preferring their own way to the way of God.” 42
Although submission is sometimes abused in the church, it seems much more common that religious folks often refuse to submit themselves to the doctrines of the church and to its leaders. The truly spiritual person will always look for lines of authority and quickly submit himself along those lines. It is only as we are submissive that people will ever submit to us.
BLEMISHES, DRY CLOUDS, WILD WAVES & WANDERING STARS
These men are blemishes at your love feasts, eating with you without the slightest qualm—shepherds who feed only themselves. They are clouds without rain, blown along by the wind; autumn trees, without fruit and uprooted— twice dead. Jude 1:12
The Swedish biblical scholar Bo Reicke says, “The teachers of heresy had apparently been so successful in gaining the confidence of the Christians that they were invited to participate in their love feasts.” 43 The Love Feast or Agape Meal (agapais) seemed to be a regular meal that perhaps ended with communion (Acts 2:42, 46). In time it began to go wrong as we can see in 1 Corinthians 11:17-22, as some people were getting drunk at the supper. Here it is also beginning to go wrong with the mere presence of these godless teachers.
The NIV translates the Greek word spilas used here as “blemishes.” It is interesting that Second Peter has a similar word (spilos) which certainly has this meaning (2 Pet. 2:13). While the word spilas just might mean a blot or blemish, it is much more likely to mean a submerged rock on which a ship could be wrecked. Barclay feels it is this meaning that is used in this passage. 44
These men are shepherds who are only interested in feeding themselves. This reminds us of Ezekiel 34:2-3 where it is said “…Woe to the shepherds of Israel who only take care of themselves! Should not shepherds take care of the flock? You eat the curds, clothe yourselves with the wool and slaughter the choice animals, but you do not take care of the flock. The Lord goes on to say in Ezekiel 34:10:“… I am against the shepherds and will hold them accountable for my flock. I will remove them from tending the flock so that the shepherds can no longer feed themselves…” (cf. Isa. 56:10-12).
It seems that Jude, like his brother James, was a keen observer of nature. He used the natural things around him to describe the false teachers. He goes on to describe the false teachers: “They are clouds without rain, blown along by the wind” (1:12; cf. 2 Pet. 2:17). In the arid Middle East a cloud that has no rain is a terrible disappointment. Lutheran commentator Paul Kretzmann describes these saying: “They are like fog-clouds that are driven in from the ocean, but never yield one drop of fructifying moisture.” 45
Jude continues, comparing them to “autumn trees, without fruit and uprooted— twice dead.” He could mean that these trees had passed two seasons without showing life or fruit. He could also mean that they were not only without fruit but were plucked up by the roots.46 The Scripture is plain in many places that such dead and fruitless lives will bring sure judgment by God. John Trapp says, “Trees that are not for fruit are for the fire.” 47
“They are wild waves of the sea, foaming up their shame; wandering stars, for whom blackest darkness has been reserved forever” (1:13). It seems that Jude cannot find enough pictures in nature to describe these false teachers. He says they are wild foaming waves casting up their shame. Anyone who has been around the sea after a storm can easily get Jude’s picture here. The seashore is littered with pollution, junk and dead things. Isaiah 57:20 says, “But the wicked are like the tossing sea, which cannot rest, whose waves cast up mire and mud.” We certainly get the idea that there is not much stability with these folks (cf. Eph. 4:14). Calvin says of them, “they breathed out, or rather cast out the scum of high-flown stuff of words in grandiloquent style.” 48
At last, Jude calls them wandering stars speeding off into the blackness of space. The Greek word used here for “wandering” is planētai, from which we get our word “planet.” 49 Perhaps he is picturing the orbits of planets, but several other commentators feel he is describing a comet or meteor. These can be of no value in guiding the lost traveler. The early French church father Hilary of Arles (c. AD 403-449) remarked: “These people are called wandering stars because they do not follow the sun of truth.” 50
WISE WORDS FROM THE PAST
Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied about these men: “See, the Lord is coming with thousands upon thousands of his holy ones…” Jude 1:14
Once again Jude is referring to the apocryphal book of First Enoch. Although this may be distasteful to some Christians, we must remember that the Apostle Paul sometimes quoted from outside sources, if these sources contained some grain of truth (Acts 17:28, 1 Cor.15:33 and Tit.1:12).51 “Elsewhere we learn that God can bring such true prophecy from strange places. Compare John 11:51, where the High Priest was hardly to be seen as a normal inspired source.” 52 In 1 Thessalonians 5:20-21 it is said, “Do not treat prophecies with contempt. Test everything. Hold on to the good.”
It is certainly true that the Lord will return to earth accompanied by his angels. Matthew 25:31 says, “When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, he will sit on his throne in heavenly glory” (cf. Matt. 16:27; 2 Thess. 1:7; Heb. 12:22). However, the Greek words here in Jude are “agias muriasin” and can mean “ten thousands of his saints,” “his holy ten thousands” or “his holy myriads.” While this speaks of saints, it could also include angels. 53
Jude makes perfectly clear why the Lord is returning to earth. He is coming, “to judge everyone, and to convict all the ungodly of all the ungodly acts they have done in the ungodly way, and of all the harsh words ungodly sinners have spoken against him.” (1:15). It appears that Jude is intent upon emphasizing the word “ungodly” (asebes), since it is seen four times in this one verse. The ungodly thus await a fiery judgment of God at the second coming of the Lord.
There has been much false teaching, at least in the western church, that the Lord Jesus appears in history three times, at his incarnation, at the so-called Rapture of the church, and at his final coming. The earliest church fathers try their best to make it clear that the Lord appears only twice. Justyn Martyr around AD 160 says, “Two advents of Christ have been announced. In the first one, he is set forth as suffering, inglorious, dishonored, and crucified. However, in the other advent, he will come from heaven with glory, when the man of apostasy…speaks strange things.” 54 Irenaeus writing about AD 180 adds, “All the prophets announced his two advents…but the second in which he will come on the clouds, bringing on the day which burns as a furnace…” 55
“These men are grumblers and faultfinders; they follow their own evil desires; they boast about themselves and flatter others for their own advantage” (1:16). The great preacher Charles Spurgeon remarked about such as these. He said, “They will pick holes in every preacher’s coat; and if the great High Priest himself were here, they would find fault with the color of the stones of his breastplate.” 56 Pett comments, “Murmurers are never happy with things because they have no faith in God’s outworkings…They are in total contrast to those who give thanks for everything (Eph. 5:20; Phil. 4:6; Col. 1:12; 4:2).” 57
So often in her history Israel was judged because she complained (Num. 11:1; 1 Cor. 10:1-10). However, under the New Covenant we are to be thankful and content. In 1 Timothy 6:6 the Scripture says, “But godliness with contentment is great gain.”
WARNINGS FROM JESUS’ APOSTLES
But, dear friends, remember what the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ foretold. They said to you, “In the last times there will be scoffers who will follow their own ungodly desires.” Jude 1:17-18
Again, “dear friends” in the Greek is “dearly beloved ones.” The beloved are challenged to remember the words of Jesus’ apostles. Obviously, Jude does not consider himself worthy of being an apostle. Pett says of him: “Jude clearly did not class himself as an apostle, but that others saw him as an apostolic man comes out in that his letter was accepted as Scripture from the beginning. The Lord’s own brothers, once they had been converted, were seen as having a special position (1 Corinthians 9:5). But they did not claim it for themselves.” 58 The early writer Oecumenius (6th to 7th century) remarks: “From this statement it is clear that Jude was writing toward the end of his life, when his and the other apostles’ ministry was coming to an end.” 59
It appears that Jude is quoting from the apostles, however, there is no quote in the Bible exactly like this. Barclay says, “He may be doing any one of three things. He may be quoting some apostolic book which we no longer possess. He may be quoting, not a book, but some oral tradition of the apostolic preaching; or some sermon which he himself had heard from the apostles….” 60 This could even be a reference to Second Peter 3:3, where the same word is used.
“Carl Henry, writing in Christianity Today, understood the New Testament to teach that in the years immediately before the Second Advent, the true faith, ‘once for all delivered’ will be ‘boycotted as if it were heresy, and the sole surviving heresy at that.’” 61
“These are the men who divide you, who follow mere natural instincts and do not have the Spirit” (1:19). Division is a sure threat to God’s assembly. Paul gives strict orders about such people in Titus 3:10: “Warn a divisive person once, and then warn him a second time. After that, have nothing to do with him.” Division in the church is a work of the flesh (Gal. 5:20). Alford says of the Greek psuchikoi used here: “The psuche is the center of the personal being, the ‘I’ of each individual.” 62 In the Greek language pseuchikoi is fleshly and pneumatikoi is spiritual. Although these false teachers were fleshly they boasted of secret knowledge that would draw people closer to God. Barker & Kohlenberger comment: “The church today is still plagued by false teachers claiming superior knowledge and experience; yet their lives are often worse than those of the average pagan…” 63
A PRESCRIPTION FOR LAST DAY SUCCESS
But you, dear friends, build yourselves up in your most holy faith and pray in the Holy Spirit. Jude 1:20
We have a great command here that would help us a lot in the postmodern church. We are told that we must each build ourselves up in our holy faith. Thus, we cannot depend on the pastor to build us up, nor can we depend on the other members to do this. It is our job and we need to do it before we come together with the assembly. One way we can accomplish this is by praying in the Holy Spirit. Paul did this himself and he advised us in Ephesians 6:18: “And pray in the Spirit on all occasions with all kinds of prayers and requests. With this in mind, be alert and always keep on praying for all the saints.” Paul more than likely is speaking about the private prayer language of tongues. This is a small and common spiritual gift that seems to be available for all who seek it. Paul also advised us to be filled with the Spirit as we see in Ephesians 5:18, and to keep in step with the Spirit as we see in Galatians 5:25.
Wuest adds here, “Prayer is the vital factor in the Christian life which activates all other departments of the Christian experience…‘In the Holy Ghost’ is locative of sphere. That is, all true prayer is exercised in the sphere of the Holy Spirit, motivated and empowered by him.” 64 He also adds concerning the building up of ourselves, “‘Building up’ is epoikodomeo, ‘to build upon, build up,’ to finish the structure of which the foundation has already been laid…” 65 We observe in other places such as 1 Corinthians 3:9-17; Ephesians 2:20-22; 4:12-13; 1 Thessalonians 5:11; 1 Peter 2:5 that when we come together we are building a holy temple to God. 66
“Keep yourselves in God’s love as you wait for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to bring you to eternal life” (1:21). Not only are we to build ourselves up in the faith but this verse tells us that we are to keep ourselves in the love of God. Again, this is something we are to do and we should not expect the pastor or the church to do it for us. The word “keep” is the Greek tereo. It has the meaning of attending to carefully, taking care of or guarding 67 As we keep ourselves in love we are to wait for God’s mercy to be revealed. We see some shining examples of waiting on God in the New Testament. Joseph of Arimathea was awaiting the kingdom of God (Mk. 15:43); Simeon and Anna were waiting on God’s Messiah to be revealed (Lk. 2:25). Schreiner says, “Those who take their eyes off their future hope will find that their life for God is slowly evaporating, and it will be evident that their real love is for the present evil age.” 68
RESCUE THE PERISHING; CARE FOR THE DYING
Be merciful to those who doubt; snatch others from the fire and save them; to others show mercy, mixed with fear— hating even the clothing stained by corrupted flesh. Jude 1:22-23
As we contemplate our last day mission, I am reminded of an old hymn by Fanny Crosby, written back in 1869.
Rescue the perishing,
Care for the dying,
Snatch them in pity from sin and the grave;
Weep o’er the erring one,
Lift up the fallen,
Tell them of Jesus the mighty to save.
Recsue the perishing,
Care for the dying;
Jesus is merciful,
Jesus will save.
We cannot reject those who have fallen into sin or have fallen under the influence of error and false teaching. The old divine John Trapp says we should rescue these, “As the angel pulled Lot out of Sodom, as ye would save a drowning man, though ye pulled off some of his hair to save him…” 70
Jude says we should show mercy but that mercy must be mixed with godly fear. It is a difficult thing to try and rescue a person spiritually. We should make sure we are standing firm with God before we do so. There is always the chance that we ourselves will become contaminated in the process. No doubt, Jude has reference here to the many laws that had to do with the highly contagious disease of leprosy (cf. Lev. 13:52-57).
Today we have something very similar to leprosy with the dreaded Ebola Virus. We are amazed at the lengths care givers must go to protect themselves from this virus. Their bodies must be completely covered, often with more than one layer of protective clothing. After treatment of the infected, the clothes must be carefully removed, decontaminated, with some items being completely destroyed. This is a vivid picture of just how dangerous sin can be in the spiritual realm, even to healthy and careful believers.
To him who is able to keep you from falling and to present you before his glorious presence without fault and with great joy— to the only God our Savior be glory, majesty, power and authority, through Jesus Christ our Lord, before all ages, now and forevermore! Amen. Jude 1:24-25
While many New Testament epistles close with a benediction, this one closes with a doxology. 71 We might add that it may well be the grandest doxology in the whole New Testament. The preacher and writer Fred B. Craddock says of it: “He knew how to move from negative to positive and to end with a flourish in the presence of God.” 72
In this doxology it becomes apparent that it is really the Lord himself who keeps us from falling and preserves us. He is the one who will keep us from apostasy in the last day. The word for “falling” or “without stumbling” is aptaistos. It gives us the picture of a sure-footed horse which does not stumble, or a sure-footed man (cf. Psa. 121:3) 73 Kretzmann adds to this, “Where human strength and ability are insufficient, where all our power falls short of the goal, there the almighty, gracious power of our heavenly Father comes to our assistance.” 74
When we realize that our salvation is complete at last, how great will be our joy. We cannot even imagine such joy! We will be presented to His Majesty totally without blemish. This picture surely comes from the Old Testament sacrificial system (e.g. Exo. 29:1f.; Lev 1:3, 10; 4:3; Num. 6:14). Early Methodist evangelist William Godbey tries to put it all into words: “Justification makes us innocent. Sanctification makes us blameless, but Glorification, sweeping away all the collateral infirmities of mind and body, makes us faultless like the angels.” 75
There no doubt have been times in our lives when we have been exceedingly joyous and thankful, but none will ever compare to the hour we see Christ and realize what he has done for us. We will see his glory and majesty. We will witness his glorious presence and power. All this will be because of what Jesus our Lord has done for us. Amen. So be it!
Several sources I have cited here are from the electronic media, either from websites or from electronic research libraries. Thus in some of these sources it is not possible to cite page numbers. Instead I have cited the verse or verses in Jude (e.g. verse v. 1:1 or vs. verses 1:5-6) about which the commentators speak.
1. Thomas R. Schreiner, The New American Commentary, Vol. 37 (Nashville: B&H Publishing, 2003), p. 403.
2. Fred B. Craddock, First and Second Peter and Jude (Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1995), p. 131.
3. Schreiner, The New American Commentary, Vol. 37, p. 407.
4. Kenneth L. Barker & John R. Kohlenberger III, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, NT (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1994), p. 1118.
1. David A. DeSilva, 2 Peter, The Bible Knowledge Commentary (Colorado Springs: Cook Communications Ministries, 2005), p. 330.
2. Robert D. Jamieson; A.R. Fausset, & David Brown, Commentary on Jude, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, 1871-78, Introduction. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/view.cgi?bk=64&ch=1.
3. David Guzik, Commentary on Jude, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, 1997-2003, v. 1. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/guz/view.cgi?bk=64&ch=1.
4. Peter Pett, Commentary on Jude, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, 2013, v. 1. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/view.cgi?bk=64&ch=1.
5. Bo Reicke, The Anchor Bible, The Epistles of James, Peter, and Jude (NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1964), p. 191.
6. Kenneth S. Wuest, In These Last Days, II Peter, I, II, III John, and Jude in the Greek New Testament (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1954), p. 233.
7. Frederick Brotherton Meyer, Commentary on Jude, F. B. Meyer’s “Through the Bible Commentary,” 1914, vs. 1-11. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fbm/view.cgi?bk=64&ch=1.
8. William Barclay, Commentary on Jude, William Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, 1956-1959. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dsb/view.cgi?bk=64&ch=1.
9. Barna Research Group, Ltd., October, 2014.
10. Guzik, Commentary on Jude, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, v. 3.
11. Barna Research Group, Ltd., December 3, 2003.
12. Schreiner, The New American Commentary, Vol. 37, pp. 435, 436.
13. Ibid., p. 435.
14. Quoted in, James Burton Coffman, Commentary on Jude, Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament (Abilene, TX: Abilene Christian University Press, 1983-1999, v. 3. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/view.cgi?bk=64&ch=1.
15. Wuest, In These Last Days, II Peter, I, II, III John, and Jude in the Greek New Testament, p. 234.
16. Barker & Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, NT., p. 1119.
Schreiner adds here: “We now know that the developed Gnosticism of the second century AD was not present when the New Testament was written, though some antecedents to what was later called Gnosticism certainly existed” (Schreiner p. 440)
17. Schreiner, The New American Commentary, Vol. 37, p. 436.
18. Wuest, In These Last Days, II Peter, I, II, III John, and Jude in the Greek New Testament, p. 237.
19. Adam Clarke, Commentary on Jude, The Adam Clarke Commentary, 1832, v. 3. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/view.cgi?bk=64&ch=1.
20. Schreiner, The New American Commentary, Vol. 37, p. 419.
21. Barclay, Commentary on Jude, William Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, vs. 5-7.
22. Barker & Kohlenberger. Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, NT, p.1121.
23. Warren W. Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT (Colorado Springs: David C. Cook, 2007), p. 1025.
24. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, eds., The Ante-Nicene Fathers (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1956), Vol. 1, p. 190; 516; Vol. 3, p. 65.
25. Schreiner, The New American Commentary, Vol. 37, p. 451.
26. Guzik, Commentary on Jude, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, v. 6.
Barker & Kohlenberger add: “Apparently some fallen angels are in bondage while others are unbound and active among people as demons” (Barker & Koholenberger, p. 1121).
27. Pett, Commentary on Jude, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, v. 6.
28. Quoted in Barclay, Commentary on Jude, William Barclay’s Daily Study Bible,
30. DeSilva, 2 Peter, The Bible Knowledge Commentary (Colorado Springs: Cook Communications Ministries, 2005), p. 334.
31. Pett, Commentary on Jude, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, v. 7.
32. Craddock, First and Second Peter and Jude, p. 140.
33. Schreiner, The New American Commentary, Vol. 37, p. 456.
34. Guzik, Commentary on Jude, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, v. 8.
35. Pett, Commentary on Jude, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, v. 8.
36. Craddock, First and Second Peter and Jude, p. 143.
37. Reicke, The Anchor Bible, The Epistles of James, Peter, and Jude, p. 202.
38. Barclay, Commentary on Jude, William Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, vs. 8-9.
39. Ibid., v. 10.
40. Ibid., v. 11.
41. Quoted in Coffman, Commentary on Jude, Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, v. 11.
42. Barclay, Commentary on Jude, William Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, v. 11.
43. Reicke, The Anchor Bible, The Epistles of James, Peter, and Jude, p. 207.
44. Barclay, Commentary on Jude, William Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, vs.12-16.
45. Paul E. Kretzmann, Commentary on Jude, Kretzmann’s Popular Commentary,
1921-23, vs. 8-13. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/kpc/view.cgi?bk=64&ch=1.
46. Jamieson, Fausset & Brown, Commentary on Jude, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, v. 12.
47. John Trapp, Commentary on Jude, John Trapp Complete Commentary (John Trapp 1601-1669), publication dates, 1865-1868, v. 12. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/view.cgi?bk=64&ch=1.
48. John Calvin, Commentary on Jude, Calvin’s Commentary on the Bible, 1840-57, p. 196. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/view.cgi?bk=64&ch=1.
49. Albert Barnes, Commentary on Jude, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, 1870, v. 13. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/view.cgi?bk=64&ch=1.
50. Gerald Bray, Ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, NT, XI, James 1-2 Peter, 1-2 John, Jude (Downers Grove, Inter Varsity Press, 2000), p. 254.
51. Guzik, Commentary on Jude, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, vs. 14-15.
Barclay notes here: “Enoch was a very popular book which every pious Jew would know and read” (Barclay vs. 12-16).
Schreiner adds: “First Enoch is not considered to be canonical Scripture by any religious group, whether we think of Judaism, Roman Catholicism, the Greek or Russian Orthodox or Protestantism” (Schreiner, p. 468).
52. Pett, Commentary on Jude, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, vs. 14-15.
53. Wuest, In These Last Days, II Peter, I, II, III John, and Jude in the Greek New Testament, p. 251.
54. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, eds., The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 1, p. 253.
55. Ibid., p. 506.
56. Quoted in Guzik, Commentary on Jude, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, vs. 16-18.
57. Pett, Commentary on Jude, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, v. 16.
Schreiner in describing these says that the NRSV translation is preferable. It reads, “they are bombastic in speech” (Schreiner, p. 474).
58. Ibid., v. 17.
59. Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, NT, XI, p.256.
60. Barclay, Commentary on Jude, William Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, vs. 17-19.
61. Coffman, Commentary on Jude, Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, v. 18.
62. Wuest, In These Last Days, II Peter, I, II, III John, and Jude in the Greek New Testament, p. 253.
63. Barker & Kohlenberger. Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, NT., p. 1123.
64. Wuest, In These Last Days, II Peter, I, II, III John, and Jude in the Greek New Testament, p. 255.
66. Pett, Commentary on Jude, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, v. 20.
67. Wuest, In These Last Days, II Peter, I, II, III John, and Jude in the Greek New Testament, p. 256.
68. Schreiner, The New American Commentary, Vol. 37, p. 484.
70. Trapp, Commentary on Jude, John Trapp Complete Commentary, v. 23.
71. Schreiner, The New American Commentary, Vol. 37, p. 490.
72. Craddock, First and Second Peter and Jude, pp. 152-53.
73. Barclay, Commentary on Jude, William Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, vs. 24-25.
74. Kretzmann, Commentary on Jude, Kretzmann’s Popular Commentary, vs. 24-25.
75. William Godbey, Commentary on Jude, William Godbey’s Commentary on the New Testament, v. 24. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ges/view.cgi?bk=64&ch=1.