2 Corinthians Notes

 

Several sources I have cited here are from the electronic media, either from websites or from electronic research libraries.  Thus in some of these sources it is not possible to cite page numbers.  Instead, I have cited the verse or verses in 2 Corinthians (e.g. v. verse 1:1 or vs. verses 1:5-6) about which the commentators speak.

 

INTRODUCTION 

1  Kenneth L. Barker & John R. Kohlenberger III, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary,
Vol. 2 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1994), p. 606.

2  Warren W. Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT (Colorado Springs, CO: David C. Cook, 2007), p. 452.

3  Charles F. Pfeiffer & Everett F. Harrison, The Wycliffe Bible Commentary (Chicago: Moody Press, 1962), p. 1261.

4   Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 660.

5  Dr. Bob Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians v. 1:2.
http://www.freebiblecommentary.org/new_testament_studies/VOL06/VOL06B_01.htm

6  Philip W. Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians (Wheaton: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 1999), p. 261.

 

CHAPTER 1

 

1  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 663.

2  David K. Lowery, 2 Corinthians, The Bible Knowledge Word Study, Acts – Ephesians
(Colorado Springs, Cook Communications Ministries, 2006), p. 327.

3  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians v. 1:2.

4  Frederick Brotherton Meyer, F.B. Meyer’s “Through The Bible’ Commentary,” Commentary on 2 Corinthians, 1914, vs. 1:1-11.
http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fbm/view.cgi?bk=46&ch=1

5  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians, v. 1:2.

6  Pfeiffer & Harrison, The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, p. 1263.

7  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 271.

8  D. Guthrie, et. al., The New Bible Commentary, Revised (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1970), p. 1075.

9  Quoted in Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 502.

10  John Trapp, John Trapp’s Complete Commentary, 2 Corinthians, 1865-68, v. 1:4.
http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/view.cgi?bk=46&ch=1.

11  Ray C. Stedman, Ray Stedman Expository Studies, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, 2010-2011, vs. 1:1-11. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rsc/view.cgi?bk=46&ch=1

12  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians, v. 1:4.

13  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 503.

14  Lowery, 2 Corinthians, The Bible Knowledge Word Study, p. 328.

15  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 505.

16  William Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
1956-1959, vs. 1:1-7. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dsb/view.cgi?bk=46&ch=1.

17  Trapp, John Trapp’s Complete Commentary, 2 Corinthians, v. 1:5.

18  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 273.

19  James Burton Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians (Abilene, TX: Abilene Christian University Press,1983-1999), v. 1:6. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/view.cgi?bk=46&ch=1.

20  William Barclay, A New Testament Wordbook (London: SCM Press Ltd., 1959),
59-60.

21  Paul E. Kretzmann, Kretzmann’s Popular Commentary, 2 Corinthians, 1921-23,
vs. 1:8-11). http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/kpc/view.cgi?bk=46&ch=1.

22  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 1:8-11.

23  Pfeiffer & Harrison, The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, p. 1264.

24  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 503.

25  Gerald Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1999), p. 197.

26  Ibid., p. 198.

27  Guthrie, et. al., The New Bible Commentary, Revised, p. 1076.

28  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 502.

29  Craig S. Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1993), p. 494.

30  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 1:12-14.

31  Peter Pett, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, 2013, vs. 1:13-14. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/view.cgi?bk=46&ch=1.

32  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 199.

33  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 1:15-22.

34  David Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, 1997-2003, vs. 15-17. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/guz/view.cgi?bk=46&ch=1.

35  Pett, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 1:15-16.

36  Albert Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, 1870, v. 1:17. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/view.cgi?bk=46&ch=0.

37 Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 506.

38 Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
v. 1:18.

39  Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset, & David Brown, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, 1871-78, v. 1:20. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/view.cgi?bk=46&ch=1

40  John Calvin, Calvin’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, 1840-57, v. 1:20. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/view.cgi?bk=46&ch=0.

41  Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs.1:19-22.

42  Guthrie, et. al., The New Bible Commentary, Revised, p. 1076.

Barnes adds: “Arrabōn from the Hebrew…properly a pledge given to ratify a contract; a part of the price, or purchase money; a first payment; that which confirms the bargain, and which is regarded as a pledge that all the price will be paid. The word occurs in the Septuagint and Hebrew, in Genesis 38:17-18; Genesis 38:20.” (Barnes, v. 1:22).

43  Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs.1:23-24.

44  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 287.

45  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p.203.

 

CHAPTER 2

 

1  Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 2:1.

2  Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
v. 2:2.

3  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 495.

4  Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 2:3-4.

5  Kretzmann, Kretzmann’s Popular Commentary, 2 Corinthians, vs.  2:1-4.

Bruce comments: “It is more satisfactory to regard this tearful letter as having been written after 1 Corinthians…” (Bruce, p. 184).

Trapp adds: “St Paul’s Epistles were written rather with tears than with ink.” (Trapp, v. 2:4).

6  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 2:1-4.

7  Pfeiffer & Harrison, The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, p. 1266.

Coffman also comments: “For nineteen centuries, the almost unanimous position of scholars was that of accepting the two offenders as the same person; and no hard evidence of any kind has been discovered that could refute it…In all history, until very recent times, only one voice was ever raised in denial of the identity of the two offenders as one; and that was that of Tertullian who lived only about a hundred years after the times of Paul.” (Coffman, 2:5).

8  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 2:5.

9  Quoted in Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 2:5-6.

10  Guthrie, et. al., The New Bible Commentary, Revised, p. 1077.

11  Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 2:7.

12  A. T. Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians (Nashville: Broadman Press,  1932, 33. Renewal 1960), v. 2:9.
http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/view.cgi?bk=46&ch=2

13  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 297.

14  Cited in Pfeiffer & Harrison, The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, p. 1266.

Lowery adds: “Satan (satana) – This word is a transliteration of the Hebrew word for ‘adversary,’ occurring as a name or title in the NT.” (Lowery, p. 332).

15  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 297.

16  Pett, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 2:12-13.

17  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 496.

18  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 2:12-17.

19  Ibid.

20  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 669.

21  Ray Stedman, Simple Christianity, http://www.raystedman.org/romans1/0005.html., Comments on Romans 12:9-12.

22  Adam Clarke, The Adam Clarke Commentary, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, 1832, v. 2:17.. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/view.cgi?bk=46&ch=2.

 

CHAPTER 3

 

1  Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, as citing Lipscomb, v. 3:1.

2  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 670.

Barclay adds: “In all probability these were emissaries of the Jews who had come to undo Paul’s work and who had brought introductory letters from the Sanhedrin to accredit them. Once Paul had had such letters himself, when he set out to Damascus to obliterate the Church. (Acts 9:2).” (Barclay, vs. 3:1-18).

3  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 3:1-18.

4  Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 3:1-2.

5  F. F. Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publ. Co., 1971), p. 189.

6  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 3:3.

7  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 213.

8  William Godbey, William Godbey’s Commentary on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 3:5. http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ges/view.cgi?bk=46

9  Ibid., v. 3:6.

Chrysostom adds: “The law was spiritual, but it did not bestow the Spirit.” (Bray, p. 217).

10  Barclay, A New Testament Wordbook, vs. 3:30-31.

11  Guthrie, et. al., The New Bible Commentary, Revised, p. 1078.

12  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 190.

13  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 216.

14  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 191.

15  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians v. 3:7.

16  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 497.

17  Calvin, Calvin’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 3:7.

18  Pett, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 3:7-8.

19  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 497.

20  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 510.

21  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 3:9.

22  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 317.

23  G. Abbott-Smith, A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament (Edinburgh, T. & T. Clark, 1960), p. 116.

24  Clarke, The Adam Clarke Commentary, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 3:11.

25  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 320.

26  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 192.

27  Stedman, Simple Christianity,2 Corinthians, vs. 3:12-18.

28  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 222.

29  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 3:14.

30  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 498.

31  Ibid.

32  Lowery, 2 Corinthians, The Bible Knowledge Word Study, p. 337.

33  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 193.

34  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 224.

35  Pfeiffer & Harrison, The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, p. 1268.

36  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 3:17.

37  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 3:18.

38  Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs.3:18.

Guzik adds: “Yet, it requires something: beholding. The word means more than a casual look; it means to make a careful study. We all have something to behold, something to study. We can be transformed by the glory of the Lord, but only if we will carefully study it…. Of course, this is how you can know someone is really spending time with the Lord: They are being transformed into the same image.” (Guzik, v. 3 18).

 

CHAPTER 4

 

1  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 4:1-6.

2  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 4:1.

3  Lowery, 2 Corinthians, The Bible Knowledge Word Study, p. 338.

4  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 672.

5  Stedman, Simple Christianity,2 Corinthians, vs. 4:1-6.

6  Meyer, F.B. Meyer’s “Through The Bible’ Commentary,” Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 4:1-6.

7  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 195.

8  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 4: 2.

9  Godbey, William Godbey’s Commentary on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v: 4:2.

10  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 672.

11  Brainy Quotes http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/m/matthew_henry.html#xz
ASsOj83HPEU7Ue.99

12  Guthrie, et. al., The New Bible Commentary, Revised, p. 1079.

13  Quoted in Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 4:5-6.

14  Gerald L. Schroeder, Ph.D., Genesis and the Big Bang, The Discovery of Harmony Between Modern Science and the Bible (New York: Bantam Books, 1990), p. 89.

15  Quoted in Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 4:6.

16  http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/240441-we-do-not-want-merely-to-see-beauty-we-want

17  Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
v. 4:7.

18  Ibid.

Bruce adds: “We have this treasure; the ‘light of the knowledge of the glory of God’ displayed in the gospel…They were expendable, but the treasure was of indestructible worth…The pottery lamps which could be bought for a copper or two in the Corinthian market-place provided a sufficient analogy.” (Bruce, p. 197).

19  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 4:7.

20  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 232.

21  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 331.

22  Quoted in Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 4:7-15.

23  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 513.

24  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 4:8.

Barker & Kohlenberger add:  “Perhaps none of his letters contains more paradoxes than 2 Corinthians, of which vs. 7-12 are typical.” (Barker & Kohlenberger, p. 673).

25  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 197.

26  Trapp, John Trapp’s Complete Commentary, 2 Corinthians, v. 4:8.

27  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 4:8.

28  Meyer, F.B. Meyer’s “Through The Bible’ Commentary,” Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 4:7-18.

29  Jamieson, Fausset, & Brown, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 4:9.

30  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 514.

31  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 4:7-15.

32  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 674.

33  Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 4:13-15.

Wiersbe adds here: “Nothing closes a believer’s mouth like unbelief (see Lk. 1:20).” (Wiersbe, p. 514).

34  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 235.

35  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 514.

36  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 236.

37  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 4:15.

38  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 514.

39  http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/cellular-microscopic/does-body-really-replace-seven-years1.htm

Guzik adds: “Outward man has the same idea as earthen vessels in 2 Corinthians 4:7 and mortal flesh in 2 Corinthians 4:11.” (Guzik, v. 4:16).

40  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 4:17.

41  Abbott-Smith, A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament, p. 121.

42  Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 4:18.

43  Dean L. Overman, A Case For The Existence of God (New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2009), p. 14.

 

CHAPTER 5

 

1  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 5:1-10.

Guzik adds:  “… The Greek philosophers thought that a bodiless spirit was the highest level of existence…Jesus approved the essential goodness of the body by becoming a man. If there was something inherently evil in the body, Jesus could never have added humanity to his deity…” (Guzik, vs. 5:2-4)

2  Ibid.

3  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 341.

4  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 202.

5  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 240.

6  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 500.

7  Pett, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs.5:2-3.

8  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians vs. 5:3-4.

9  Ibid.

10  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 500.

11  Ibid, p. 501.

12  Aurelius Augustinus, The Confessions of St. Augustine (London/Glasgow: Fontana Books, 1959), p. 31.

13  Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 5:5-8.

14  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 500.

15  Kretzmann, Kretzmann’s Popular Commentary, 2 Corinthians, vs.  5:6-10.

Trapp adds here: “Socrates also, that wisest of philosophers, could not with all his skill resolve his friends whether it were better for a man to die or live longer…” (Trapp, vs. 5:6).

16  Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 5:6.

17  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 675.

18  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 243.

19  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 346.

20  Quoted in Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 5:8.

21  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, pp. 347-348.

22  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians vs. 5:l8.

23  Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 5:10.

24  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians vs. 5:9.

25  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 349.

Stedman adds: “This is not a judgment to settle destiny. This is a personal evaluation given to each individual by the Lord himself of what his life has really been like.” (Stedman, vs. 5:6-17).

26  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 677.

27  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 5:10.

28  Guthrie, et. al., The New Bible Commentary, Revised, p. 1080.

29  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 517.

30  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 351.

31  Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 5:13-15.

32  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 517.

33  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 5:11-19.

34  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 5:14.

35  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 354.

36  Cited in Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 518.

37  Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 5:16.

Stedman adds here: “This is the only reference in the whole New Testament that indicates that maybe Paul personally heard Jesus. For he says ‘…we once regarded Christ from a human point of view…’ (2 Corinthians 5:16b RSV).” (Stedman, v. 5:16).

Guzik also comments: “Because Paul writes we have known Christ according to the flesh, we can surmise that Paul knew of Jesus during the days of his earthly ministry and probably even heard Jesus teach in Jerusalem. Paul may have even been among some of the Pharisees who often confronted Jesus!” (Guzik, v. 5:16).

38  Ibid., v. 5:17, citing McKay.

39  Guthrie, et. al., The New Bible Commentary, Revised, p. 1078.

40  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians vs. 5:18.

41  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 679.

42  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians vs. 5:19.

43  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 5:20-21.

44  Ibid.

45  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 210.

46  Ibid.

Ambrosiaster adds: “In view of the fact that he was made an offering for sins, it is not wrong for him to be said to have been made ‘sin,’ because in the law the sacrifice which was offered for sins used to be called a ‘sin.’” (Bray, p. 252).

47  Pfeiffer & Harrison, The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, p. 1272.

 

CHAPTER 6

 

1  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 6:1.

2  Clarke, The Adam Clarke Commentary, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 6:2.

3  Francis A. Schaeffer, The Church At The End Of The 20th Century (Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 1970), p. 51.

4  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 360.

5  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 6:2.

6  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 6:3.

7  Meyer, F.B. Meyer’s “‘Through The Bible’ Commentary,” Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 6:1-10.

8  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 6:2-7.

9  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 361.

10  Barclay, A New Testament Wordbook (London: SCM Press Ltd., 1959), pp. 59-60.

11  Brooke Keith, War Cry of the Salvation Army, Nov. 7, 2009.

12  James Emery White, Life-Defining Moments (Colorado Springs: WaterBrook Press, 2001), p. 55.

13  Pett, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 6:3-5.

14  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 6:1-10.

15  Ibid.

16  Stedman, Simple Christianity,2 Corinthians, vs. 6:3-10.

17  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 6:1-10.

18  Abbott-Smith, A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament, p. 302.

19  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 257.

20  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians,
pp. 363-64.

21  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 6:1-10.

22  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 6:6.

23  Lowery, 2 Corinthians, The Bible Knowledge Word Study, p. 344.

Barclay defines this unfeigned love as an “unconquerable benevolence.” (Barclay,
vs.6:1-10).

24  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 680.

25  Pett, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 6:8-10.

26  Quoted in Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 6:4-10.

27  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 368.

28  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 681.

29  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 519.

30  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 6:2-7.

31  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 6:13.

32  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 6:14.

33  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 6:14-18.

“Often it meant that a man had to give up social life. In the ancient world, as we saw when studying the section on meat offered to idols, many a heathen feast was held in the temple of a god. The invitation would run, ‘I invite you to dine with me at the table of our Lord Serapis.’ Even if that were not so, a heathen feast would begin and end with the pouring of a libation, a cup of wine, to the gods. Could a Christian share in that? Or must he get out and say good-bye to the social fellowship which used to mean so much to him?” (Barclay, vs. 6:14-18).

34  Ibid.

35  Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 6:14.

36  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 260.

37  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 372.

Pett adds: “But in intertestamental literature, especially at Qumran, Belial had become a personal enemy of God, prince of demons and possibly a synonym for Satan, which would give deeper significance to the above references.” (Pett, vs. 6:14-15).

38  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 6:15.

39  Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 6:16.

40  Pett, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
v. 6:16.

41  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 504.

Barclay adds: “It is a fact that Paul seldom quotes accurately. Why? We must remember that in his time books were written on papyrus rolls. A book the size of Acts would require a roll about thirty-five feet long, a very unwieldy thing. There were no chapter divisions; they were inserted by Stephen Langton in the thirteenth century. There were no verse divisions; they were inserted by Stephanus, the Paris printer, in the sixteenth century. Finally, there was no such thing as a concordance until the sixteenth century. The result was that Paul did the only sensible thing— he quoted from memory, and so long as he got the substance right he did not worry about the actual wording. It was not the letter of scripture but the message of scripture which mattered to him.” (Barclay, vs. 6:14-18).

42  Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 6:17.

 

CHAPTER 7

 

1  Kretzmann, Kretzmann’s Popular Commentary, 2 Corinthians, vs. 7:1-4.

Coffman adds: “There is no doubt that this passage comes in very awkwardly. When we omit it and when we read straight on from 2 Corinthians 6:13 to 2 Corinthians 7:2 we get perfect sense…” (Coffman, v. 7:1).

2  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 682.

3  Clarke, The Adam Clarke Commentary, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v.7:1.

Bruce adds here: (cf. the correlation of Hebrew basar and ruah, e.g. in Isa. 31:3; a Qumran example is provided in 1 QM 7.5, where the ‘sons of light’ who take part in the holy war must be ‘perfect in spirit and flesh’)…cf. Col. 2:5…sim to 1 C. 5:3.” (Bruce, p. 216).

4  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 7:1.

5  Quoted in Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 7:1.

6  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 7:1.

7  Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
v. 7:1.

8  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 522.

9  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 376.

10  Lowery, 2 Corinthians, The Bible Knowledge Word Study, p. 346.

11  Clarke, The Adam Clarke Commentary, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v.7:3.

12  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 217.

13  Clarke, The Adam Clarke Commentary, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v.7:4.

14  Trapp, John Trapp’s Complete Commentary, 2 Corinthians, v. 7:4.

15  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 7:5.

16  Stedman, Simple Christianity,2 Corinthians, vs.  7:2-16.

17  Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 7:6, Citing Ramsay.

18  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 378.

19  Pett, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 7:5-7.

20  Ibid., v. 7:8.

21  Pfeiffer & Harrison, The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, p. 1274.

22  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 7:9.

23  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 522.

24  Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 7:8-12.

25  Ibid., As quoted in.

26  Meyer, F.B. Meyer’s “Through The Bible’ Commentary,” Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 7:6-16.

27  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 523.

28  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 504.

Pfeiffer & Harrison add: “The energy of this verse is almost untranslatable.” (Pfeiffer & Harrison, p. 1274).

29  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 7:11.

30  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 7:11.

31  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 384.

32  Ibid., p. 385.

33  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 268.

34  Abbott-Smith, A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament, p. 340.

35  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 505.

36  Lowery, 2 Corinthians, The Bible Knowledge Word Study, p. 347.

37  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 219.

38  Pfeiffer & Harrison, The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, p. 1275.

 

CHAPTER 8

 

1  Pett, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 8:1-2.

2  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 505.

Pett adds here: “…that he seems to have encouraged the churches to gather these funds over a period of about five years (52-57 AD)…” (Pett, vs. 8:1-15).

3  Abbott-Smith, A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament, p. 479.

4  Stedman, Simple Christianity, 2 Corinthians, vs. 8:1-15.  

5  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, pp. 388-89.

“Although all of present-day Greece has been united by Philip of Macedon in 338 BC, the two neighboring provinces, under Roman rule, had become rivals [Macedonia and Achaia].”

6  Jamieson, Fausset, & Brown, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 8:2.

7  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 684.

8  Barclay, A New Testament Wordbook, p. 72.

9  Trapp, John Trapp’s Complete Commentary, 2 Corinthians, v. 8:4.

10  Stedman, Simple Christianity,2 Corinthians, vs. 8:1-15.

11  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 524.

12  Pfeiffer & Harrison, The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, p. 1275.

13  Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 8:6.

14  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians v. 8:8.

15  Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
v. 8:8.

16  Stedman, Simple Christianity,2 Corinthians, vs. 8:1-15.

17  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 8:9.

18  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 506.

19  Quoted in Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 8:10-11.

20  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 394.

21  Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 8:10-12.

22  Quoted in Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 8:12.

23  Ibid.

24  Pett, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 8:1-15.

25  Ben Shapiro, Ben Shapiro, Brainwashed: How Universities Indoctrinate America’s Youth (Nashville: WND Books, 2004), p. 35.

26  Larry Schweikart and Dave Dougherty, A Patriot’s History of the Modern World, Vol. 2 (NY: The Penguin Group, 2013), p. 361.

27  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 506.

28  Ibid.

29  Clarke, The Adam Clarke Commentary, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 8:15.

30  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 223.

31  Lowery, 2 Corinthians, The Bible Knowledge Word Study, p. 350.

32  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 397.

33  Ibid., p. 398.

34  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 8:16-24.

35  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 506.

36  Pett, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 8:20-21.

37  Quoted in Guthrie, et. al., The New Bible Commentary, Revised, p. 1083.

38  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 224.

39  Guthrie, et. al., The New Bible Commentary, Revised, p. 1083.

40  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 507.

41  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 400.

 

CHAPTER 9

 

1  Quoted in Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 9:1.

Calvin adds: “He seems to speak of a new matter, that he had not previously touched upon, while in reality he is following out the same subject” (Calvin, v. 9:1).

2  Lowery, 2 Corinthians, The Bible Knowledge Word Study, p. 350.

3  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 9:1-5.

4  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 507.

5  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 9:2.

6  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 404.

7  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians vs. 9:6-15.

8  Cited in Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 9:6-15.

9  Godbey, William Godbey’s Commentary on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 9:7.

10  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 9:6-15.

11  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 280.

12  Clarke, The Adam Clarke Commentary, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 9:7.

13  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians vs. 9:7.

14  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 9:6-15.

15  Interview with Luther Elliss on the Huckabee Show, 8/28/10.

16  http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/m/martinluth390009.html#IShSJKV4
A6qGPbOs.99.

17  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 281.

18  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 689.

19  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians vs. 9:10.

20  Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 9:11.

21  Ibid.

22  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 9:11.

23  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 9:11.

24  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 408.

25  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 9:12.

26  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 689.

27  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 529.

28  Ibid., pp. 529-30.

29  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 9:15.

30  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 228.

Coffman adds here: “Scholarly opinion of what the gift is in this verse is sharply divided; but the view which appears most reasonable is that which understands the gift to be the Lord Jesus Christ himself who is THE gift of God.” (Coffman, v. 9:15).

31  Quoted in Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 9:15.

32  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 689.

 

CHAPTER 10

 

1  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 10:1-6.

2  Ibid.

3  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 414.

4  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, pp. 689-90.

5  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians v. 10:2.

6  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 10:1-6.

7  Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 10:3-6.

8  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians vs. 10:4-5.

9  Nancy Pearcey, Total Truth: Liberating Christianity from Its Cultural Captivity (Wheaton IL: Crossway Books, 2004), p. 39. 

“Decartes helped to establish a form of rationalism that treated Reason not merely as the human ability to think rationally but as an infallible and autonomous source of truth.” 

Pope adds concerning René Descartes: “He is widely held to be the Father of Modern Philosophy… Descartes thus went on to construct a system of knowledge that largely discarded perception as unreliable and admitting only deductive reasoning as a method of thinking or knowing…What is real is only what is in my mind. The actual ‘is-ness’ of things is no longer the basis of reality. Now, it is just my thoughts that are real. Reality is not ‘out there’ but it is only in my mind. It is what I think that matters…This leads to a lot of the absurdity of modern times where we tend to overlook reality and reduce everything to opinion…[for instance] Cartesian retreat into the mind allows many to continue to think of abortion abstractly and as an issue. And the mind, detached from reality can do some pretty awful rationalizing. Msgr. Charles Pope, On the Cartesian Anxiety of Our Times and What Faith Can Offer, http://blog.adw.org/2011/04/on-the-cartesian-anxiety-of-our-times-and-what-faith-can-offer/

Riss adds: “Descartes, with his dictum, ‘I think, therefore I am,’ had shifted the basis of authority from revelation to man’s reason. Although Descartes was a dedicated Christian who was attempting to defend the faith against skepticism, he helped to set into motion a rationalistic approach that eventually ended in atheism three centuries later. Richard Riss, Christian Evidences, The Process of Secularization, http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences2/02pro.html.

10  David S. Dockery, ed., The Challenge of Postmodernism (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1995), p. 365.

11  Alvin Plantinga, Where The Conflict Really Lies, Science, Religion, and Naturalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), p. 266.

12  E. Fuller Torrey, M.D. Freudian Fraud, The Malignant Effect of Freud’s Theory on American Thought and Culture, (NY: Harper Collins Books, 1992). pp. 9-10.

13  Quoted in Martin and Deidre Bobgan, Stop Counseling! Start Ministering! (Santa Barbara, CA: East Gate Publishers, 2011), p. 83.

14  Guthrie, et. al., The New Bible Commentary, Revised, p. 1084.

15  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 10:6.

16  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 10:7-18.

17  Ibid.

18  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 532.

19  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 505.

20  Ibid., pp. 508-09.

21  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 232.

Comfort adds: “Greece was known for its eloquent and persuasive orators.  Corinth, a prominent Greek city at this time, was filled with trained speakers…He had already admitted to the Corinthians that he had consciously avoided dependence on rhetoric or human philosophy when he had presented the gospel of salvation to them (see 1 Cor. 2:1-3)…” (Comfort, p. 420).

22  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 601.

23  Pfeiffer & Harrison, The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, p. 1278.

24  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 533.

2http://www.ribessj.org/the_corporal.pdf

26  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 533.

27  Meyer, F.B. Meyer’s “Through The Bible’ Commentary,” Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 10:8-18.

28  Abbott-Smith, A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament, p. 230.

29  Barker & Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 691.

30  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians vs. 10:13.

31  Quoted in Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 10:7-18.

32  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 288.

 

CHAPTER 11

 

1  Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 11:1.

2  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 510.

3  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 290.

4  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 428.

5  Pett, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 11:2.

6  Guthrie, et. al., The New Bible Commentary, Revised, p. 1085.

7  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 11:1-6.

8  Lowery, 2 Corinthians, The Bible Knowledge Word Study, p. 350.

9  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 290.

10  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 534.

11  Quoted in Stedman, Simple Christianity,2 Corinthians, vs. 11:1-15.

12  Abbott-Smith, A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament, pp. 47, 6.

13  Quoted in Stedman, Simple Christianity,2 Corinthians, vs. 11:1-15.

14  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 430.

15  Pett, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 11:1-33.

16  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 510.

“By rhetoric one showed that he was educated and truly worthy of being heard by the well-to-do.  Philosophers, however, stressed their genuine knowledge over others’ persuasive speech…Paul appeals to the latter model against the former one to defend himself…his writings attest a higher level of rhetorical sophistication than possessed by most people of his day…”

17  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 236.

18  Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 11:5-9.

19  Kretzmann, Kretzmann’s Popular Commentary, 2 Corinthians, vs. 11:5-9.

20  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 431.

21  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 11:6.

22  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 11:1-6.

23  Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 11:6.

24  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 11:7-15.

Comfort adds: “Prominent Greeks considered manual labor as beneath them.  In Greco-Roman society, it was more honorable for a traveling teacher to beg than it was for him to stoop to demeaning manual labor.  In contrast, the Jews respected manual labor.  In fact, Jewish rabbis, teachers of the law, were required to support themselves with some kind of trade.  Thus, when Paul supported himself as a tentmaker, he was following his rabbinical training.  How could Paul, a mere lower-class worker, teach them?” (Comfort, p. 433).

25  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 433.

26  Clarke, The Adam Clarke Commentary, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 11:8.

27  Pett, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 11:9

28  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 293.

29  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 511.

30  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 434.

31  Pett, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 11:13-15.

32  Quoted in Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 11:10-15.

33  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 294.

34  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 435.

35  Ibid., p. 436.

36  J. D. Douglas & Merrill C. Tenney, eds., The New International Dictionary of the Bible (Basingstoke, Hants, UK: Marshall-Pickering, 1963, 1987), p. 899.

37  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 11:16-33.

38  Kretzmann, Kretzmann’s Popular Commentary, 2 Corinthians, vs. 11:16-20.

39  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 511.

40  Quoted in Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 11:16.

41  Ibid., v. 11:17.

42  Ibid., v. 11:18.

43  Pfeiffer & Harrison, The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, p. 1279.

Keener adds: “Irony was a common rhetorical technique.  A blow on the face, like spittle, was a grievous insult to one’s honor.” (Keener, p. 511).

44  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 439.

45  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
v. 11:20.

46  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 695.

47  Lowery, 2 Corinthians, The Bible Knowledge Word Study, p. 358.

48  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 11:16-33.

49  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 240.

50  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 439.

51  Jamieson, Fausset, & Brown, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 11:23.

52  Clarke, The Adam Clarke Commentary, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 11:23.

53  The Mishnah, Makkoth, 3:12-13.

54  Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 11:23.

55  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 11:16-33.

56  Jamieson, Fausset, & Brown, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 11:25.

“Probably in some of his voyages from Tarsus, where he stayed for some time after his conversion, and from which, as being a seafaring place, he was likely to make missionary voyages to adjoining places (Acts 9:30; Acts 11:25; Galatians 1:21).”

57  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 442.

58  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 512.

59  Guthrie, et. al., The New Bible Commentary, Revised, p. 1086.

60  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 695.

61  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 11:16-33.

62  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
v. 11:27.

63  Lowery, 2 Corinthians, The Bible Knowledge Word Study, p. 359.

64  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 512.

65  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 244.

66  Pett, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 11:29.

67  Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 11:31.

68  Ibid., v. 11:28.

69  Pett, Peter Pett’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians,
vs. 11:32-33.

70  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 244.

71  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 11:16-33.

72  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 245.

73  Stedman, Simple Christianity,2 Corinthians, vs. 11:16-33.

74  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 301.

 

CHAPTER 12

 

1  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 447.

2  Jamieson, Fausset, & Brown, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 12:1.

Bruce adds: “The experience described here cannot be equated with any recorded in Acts…he is more impressed by what he heard than by anything he saw.” (Bruce, p. 246).

3  Calvin, Calvin’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 12:1.

4  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 12:1-10.

5  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 697.

6  Quoted in Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians v. 12:2.

7  Meyer, F.B. Meyer’s “Through The Bible’ Commentary,” Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 12:1-10.

8  Quoted in Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 12:1-6.

9  Abbott-Smith, A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament, p. 60.

10  Clarke, The Adam Clarke Commentary, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 12:2.

11  Guthrie, et. al., The New Bible Commentary, Revised, p. 1086.

12  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 450.

Wiersbe adds: “He overheard the divine secrets that are shared only in heaven…Even Moses, who was intimate with God, met the Lord on the mountaintop; but Paul met the Lord in paradise.” (Wiersbe, p. 538).

13  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 12:4.

14  Clarke, The Adam Clarke Commentary, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 12:4.

15  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 451.

16  Quoted in Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 12:6.

17  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 538.

18  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 12:7.

19  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 12:1-10.

20  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 514.

21  Guthrie, et. al., The New Bible Commentary, Revised, p. 1086.

22  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 306.

23  Wiersbe, The Wiersbe Bible Commentary, NT, p. 539.

24  Ibid., as quoted in, p. 540.

25  Calvin, Calvin’s Commentary on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 12:8.

26  Godbey, William Godbey’s Commentary on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 12:9.

27  Bray, ed., Ancient Christian Commentary On Scripture, VII, p. 308.

28  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 698.

29  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 12:11-18.

30  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 459.

31  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 12:16.

32  Lowery, 2 Corinthians, The Bible Knowledge Word Study, p. 362.

33  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, p. 700.

34  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 12:19-21.

35  Ibid.

36  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians v. 12:20.

37  Robertson, Robertson’s Word Pictures of the New Testament, Commentary on Second Corinthians, v. 12:20.

38  David Guzik, David Guzik’s Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 1 Timothy. http://www.studylight.org/com/guz/view.cgi?bk=53&ch=2. 1997-2003, v. 5:19-20.

39  Patrick Glynn, God, The Evidence: The Reconciliation of Faith and Reason in a Postsecular World (Rocklin CA: Prima Publishing, 1997), p. 155.

40  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 12:19-21.

 

CHAPTER 13

 

1  Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary, I & II Corinthians, p. 253.

Coffman adds: “Jesus had indicated the continuing validity of the principle in Matthew 18:16…Hughes observed that ‘The minimum number of witnesses was two; and three were preferable to two.’” (Coffman, citing Hughes, v. 13:1)

2  Quoted in Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 13:1-4.

3  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2,  p. 700.

4  Abbott-Smith, A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament, p. 120.

5  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians v. 13:3.

6  Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 13:5-10.

7  Guthrie, et. al., The New Bible Commentary, Revised, p. 1087.

8  Quoted in Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 13:5-10.

9  Trapp, John Trapp’s Complete Commentary, 2 Corinthians, v. 13:7.

10  Meyer, F.B. Meyer’s “Through The Bible’ Commentary,” Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 13:7-14.

Ambrosiaster adds: “…there is no power against the truth.” (Bray, p. 314).

11  Jamieson, Fausset, & Brown, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 13:9.

12  Comfort, gen. ed., Life Application Bible Commentary, 1 & 2 Corinthians, p. 470.

13  Guthrie, et. al., The New Bible Commentary, Revised, p. 1088.

14  Barker &  Kohlenberger, Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 2, pp. 701-702.

15  Pfeiffer & Harrison, The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, p. 1283.

16  Warren W. Wiersbe, The Wiersby Bible Commentary, NT (Colorado Springs: David C. Cook, 2007), p. 663.

17  Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, editors, The Ante-Nicene Fathers, The Writings of the Fathers down to AD 325, Vol. 1, (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1956), p.185.

18  Ibid., Vol. 2, p. 291.

19  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 448.

20  Guzik, David Guzik Commentaries on the Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 13:12-14.

21  Barnes, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v. 13:13.

22  Coffman, Coffman’s Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, v.  13:14.

23  Utley, Free Bible Commentary, 2 Corinthians v. 13:14.

24  Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, p. 516.

25  Francis A. Schaeffer, He Is There And He Is Not Silent (Wheaton IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 1972) pp. 12-19.

26  Barclay, Barclay’s Daily Study Bible, Commentary on 2 Corinthians, vs. 13:1-14.